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[42] On 12 July, the Assembly went into a non-stop session after rumours circulated he was planning to use the Swiss Guards to force its closure. [189], In the ancien regime, new opportunities for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles on their own estates. May 22: The Assembly decides that it alone can decide issues of war and peace, but that the war cannot be declared without the proposition and sanction by the King. These were exacerbated by Louis' refusal to accept limitations on his powers and attempts to mobilise external support to reverse it, combined with discontent over rising prices due to monetary inflation, which particularly impacted the urban working class. In rural areas, wild rumours and paranoia resulted in the formation of militia and an agrarian insurrection known as la Grande Peur. August 14: Lafayette tries unsuccessfully to persuade his army to march on Paris to rescue the royal family. RÉVOLUTION FRANÇAISE. [8], Historians generally view the Revolution as driven by the failure of the Ancien Régime to manage increasing social and economic inequality. [58], On 5 October 1789, crowds of women assembled outside the Hôtel de Ville, urging action to reduce prices and improve bread supplies. Edmund Burke responded in November 1790 with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Revolution in France, attacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries. July 25: The Assembly authorizes the Paris sections, local assemblies in each neighborhood, many controlled by the Jacobins and Cordeliers, to meet in permanent sessions. August 6: Royalist uprisings in Toulouse and Bordeaux. 303–04, Elise S. Brezis and François H. Crouzet, "The role of assignats during the French Revolution: An evil or a rescuer? After the collapse of the First Empire in 1815, the French public lost the rights and privileges earned since the Revolution, but they remembered the participatory politics that characterised the period, with one historian commenting: "Thousands of men and even many women gained firsthand experience in the political arena: they talked, read, and listened in new ways; they voted; they joined new organisations; and they marched for their political goals. Le site facile à retenir – Améliorez votre culture générale et votre mémoire ! June 7: Bordeaux rejects the new government. September 20: The French army under Generals, September 22: The Convention proclaims the abolition of royalty and the, October 27: The French army under Dumouriez invades the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium). September 10: The government requisitions all church objects made of gold or silver. January 21: Louis XVI is beheaded at 10:22 on, January 21: Louis XVI, at age 38, was beheaded by. XO Editions. As she was led to the scaffold, Madame Roland shouted "O liberty! [87], Accompanying this was a campaign for war against Austria and Prussia, also led by Brissot, whose aims have been interpreted as a mixture of cynical calculation and revolutionary idealism. The motion is opposed by Robespierre, who declares "Louis must die so that the nation may live." June 28: Lafayette speaks to the Assembly, denouncing the actions of the Jacobins and other radical groups in the Assembly. August 27: Anti-Convention leaders in Toulon invite the British fleet and army to occupy the city. "[213], In the cities, entrepreneurship on a small scale flourished, as restrictive monopolies, privileges, barriers, rules, taxes and guilds gave way. July 14: At a celebration of the anniversary of the Revolution, General Jourdan calls "bringing back the pikes", the weapons of the Jacobin street mobs during the Terror. Resistance was strong in every sector, as Belgian nationalism emerged to oppose French rule. His army pulls back to the west bank of the. [94], From 2 to 6 September, a series of extra-judicial killings took place in Paris, known as the September Massacres; between 1,100 to 1,600 prisoners held in Parisian jails were summarily executed, of whom more than 72% were common criminals. They invited the other deputies to join them, but made it clear they intended to conduct the nation's affairs with or without them. Although rumoured to hold large numbers of prisoners, only seven were found; four forgers, two noblemen held for "immoral behaviour", and a murder suspect. But the ideas of representational democracy and basic property rights took hold, and it sowed the seeds of the later revolutions of 1830 and 1848. By 19 June, they had been joined by over 100 members of the clergy, and these deputies now declared themselves the National Assembly. During the Revolution, most of the orders of nuns were shut down and there was no organised nursing care to replace them. Locals often resisted de-Christianisation by attacking revolutionary agents and hiding members of the clergy who were being hunted. On 18th, Dumouriez was defeated at Neerwinden and defected to the Austrians, followed by risings in Bordeaux, Lyon, Toulon, Marseilles, Caen. January 3: Priests are ordered to take an oath to the Nation within twenty-four hours. The Council of 500 was responsible for drafting legislation, which was reviewed and approved by the Council of Ancients, an upper house containing 250 men over the age of 40. La Révolution française est une période de l'histoire de France qui commence en 1789 avec la réunion des États généraux et la prise de la Bastille et s'achève avec le coup d'État du 18 brumaire (9-10 novembre 1799) de Napoléon Bonaparte. Under the pressure of events, splits appeared within the Montagnard faction, with violent disagreements between radical Hébertists and moderates led by Danton. Republican coup d'état of September 4, 1797. La péninsule italienne est sous influence française, la rive gauche du Rhin et la Belgique reviennent à la France. The government decided not to repudiate the old debts. August 24: The Assembly proclaims freedom of speech. (1922) p. 115. October 31: The 21 Girondins deputies are guillotined. Après avoir fait guillotiner les Girondins, les Montagnards s'entretuent également. [222], According to Daron Acemoglu, Davide Cantoni, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson the French Revolution had long-term effects in Europe. Protestants and Jews gained equal rights. The royalist Pichegru is chosen president of the Council of Five Hundred, and another royalist, May 20: A drawing of lots removes the moderate republican, June 14: Bonaparte installs a new government in, June 24: The Director Paul Barras contacts General Hoche, seeking support for a, June 27: The royalist majority in the Councils repeals the law of October 25, 1795, which added punishments against refractory priests and. [247] Other historians, influenced by Marxist thinking, have emphasised the importance of the peasants and the urban workers in presenting the Revolution as a gigantic class struggle. Most lasted only a matter of weeks but they became the main communication medium, combined with the very large pamphlet literature. In January 1790, the National Guard tried to arrest Marat for denouncing Lafayette and Bailly as 'enemies of the people'. Many of its principles are now considered fundamental aspects of modern Liberal democracy. The sentence was carried out on 21 January on the Place de la Révolution, now the Place de la Concorde. [122], There are various interpretations of the Terror and the violence with which it was conducted; Marxist historian Albert Soboul saw it as essential to defend the Revolution from external and internal threats. That evening he made the same speech at the Jacobins club, where it was greeted with huge applause and demands for execution of the 'traitors'. La Révolution française a créé des divisions immédiates et durables entre les partisans des idées révolutionnaires et les défenseurs de l'ordre ancien, et aussi entre les anticléricaux et l'Église catholique. Organised women were permanently shut out of the French Revolution after 30 October 1793. [131], A committee drafted a new constitution, approved by plebiscite on 23 September 1795 and put into place on 27th. March 2: The Convention orders the arrest of Barère, Villaud-Varenne, Collot d'Herbois and Vadier, the Jacobins who had orchestrated the downfall of Robespierre. May 5: Formal opening of the Estates-General at Versailles. Différence entre aube, aurore et crépuscule, Interféromètre de Michelson en lame d’air. [254] Within France itself, the Revolution permanently crippled the power of the aristocracy and drained the wealth of the Church, although the two institutions survived despite the damage they sustained. June 24: Carnot foresightedly despatched a large part of the Parisian artillery to the front. La Révolution française mit fin à la royauté, à la société d'ordres et à tous les privilèges. The remaining 600 Conventionnels kept their seats, a move intended to ensure stability. [59] These protests quickly turned political, and after seizing weapons stored at the Hôtel de Ville, some 7,000 marched on Versailles, where they entered the Assembly to present their demands. Il faudra attendre le 13 juillet 1984 pour voir l'inauguration d'un musée relatif à cette période, le musée de la Révolution française. It exploited popular anti-Austrianism, especially as represented by Marie Antoinette, but also a genuine belief in exporting the values of political liberty and popular sovereignty. [116] To retain the loyalty of the remaining Hébertists, Danton was arrested, and executed on 5 April along with Camille Desmoulins, after a show trial that arguably did more damage to Robespierre than any other act in this period. The new government enforced new reforms, incorporating the region into France itself. The monarchy was no longer viewed as divinely ordained. [185] Economically, many peasant women refused to sell their goods for assignats because this form of currency was unstable and was backed by the sale of confiscated Church property. It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. choq... 17 Janvier 19h35 | Histoire. [119], Robespierre responded by not attending sessions, allowing his opponents to build a coalition against him. [32], 610 deputies sat for the Third Estate, in theory representing 95% of the population, although voting rights were restricted to French-born or naturalised males, aged 25 years or more, residing where the vote was to take place and who paid taxes. Née des difficultés de la monarchie et des contestations de l'absolutisme, elle marque une rupture totale avec l'Ancien Régime (la période précédente) dans le domaine politique, mais aussi dans les … By December 1790, the Brabant revolution had been crushed and Liège was subdued the following year. The arrival of these troops was also viewed as an attempt to intimidate the Assembly. [233], The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the "Helvetic Republic" (1798–1803). July 28: The Assembly refuses to allow Austrian troops to cross French territory to suppress an uprising in Belgium, inspired by the French Revolution. Application Android digiSchool alternance, Application Android digiSchool ingénieurs. This role was underlined by the splendour of its architecture, intended to overwhelm the visitor and convince them of Royal omnipotence. 6,000 soldiers have been assembled by Bonaparte there, soldiers who are largely hostile to the Councils because of delays in their pay. It was a different kind of war, fought by nations rather than kings, intended to destroy their opponents' ability to resist, but also implement deep-ranging social change. [90], Popular anger increased when details of the Brunswick Manifesto reached Paris on 1 August; issued by the Prussian commander, it threatened the capital with 'unforgettable vengeance' should any oppose steps to restore the power of the monarchy. July 1: Robespierre speaks at the Jacobin Club, denouncing a conspiracy against him within the Convention, the Committee of Public Safety, and the Committee of General Security. The emergence of this so-called "public sphere" meant Paris replaced Versailles as the cultural and intellectual centre, leaving the Court isolated and detached. July 26: Robespierre gives a violent speech at the Convention, demanding, without naming them, the arrest and punishment of "traitors" in the Committees of Public Safety and General Security. They expressed these demands using pamphlets and clubs such as the Cercle Social, whose largely male members viewed themselves as contemporary feminists. In 1788, the ratio of debt to GNP in France was 55.6%, significantly lower than Britain at 181.8%; although French borrowing costs were higher, the percentage of taxes devoted to interest payments was about the same in both countries. April 23: Robespierre creates a new Bureau of Police attached to the Committee of Public Safety, in opposition to the existing police under the Committee of General Safety. Many of the women of the Revolution were even publicly executed for "conspiring against the unity and the indivisibility of the Republic". Since the Council of 500 controlled legislation and finance, they could paralyse government at will, and as the Directors had no power to call new elections, the only way to break a deadlock was to rule by decree or use force. June 6: The deputies of the nobility reject a compromise program proposed by finance minister. September 14: Council of Five Hundred refuses to declare a state of national emergency. The Jacobins attempted to eradicate Christianity in France. October 10: A decree by the Convention puts the new Constitution on hold. On 10 September, the majority led by Sieyès and Talleyrand rejected this in favour of a single assembly, while Louis retained only a "suspensive veto"; this meant he could delay the implementation of a law, but not block it. Bonaparte speaks first to the Council of the Ancients, explaining the need for a change in government. Furthermore, from about 1730, higher standards of living had reduced the mortality rate among adults considerably. [197], The changes in France were enormous; some were widely accepted and others were bitterly contested into the late 20th century. [6] Over the next two centuries, its key principles like equality would inspire campaigns for the abolition of slavery and universal suffrage. dénoncer ? November 5: A Russian-Turkish fleet blockades. He urges "indulgence" toward opponents and "national reconciliation". Quel dirigeant soviétique a joué un rôle essentie... en rapport avec la guerre froide peut t-on m'aider ?Quel dirigeant soviétique a joué un rôle essentiel d... 28 Février 18h13 | Histoire. [242] Governmental reforms introduced in the Constitutional Act 1791 split Quebec into two separate colonies, Lower Canada, and Upper Canada; and introduced electoral institutions to the two colonies. [88] Ironically, Marie Antoinette headed a faction within the court that also favoured war, seeing it as a way to win control of the military, and restore royal authority. "[158], The Haitian Revolution (Saint Domingue) became a central example of slave uprisings in French colonies. March 1: Decree of the Convention annexes Belgium to France. The legislature demands new measures for "public safety". March 21: Establishment of Revolutionary Surveillance Committees (, March 30: The Convention orders Dumouriez to return to Paris, and sends four commissaires and. Late in August/early September 1792, elections were held, now under universal male suffrage, for the new National Convention, which replaced the Legislative Assembly on 20 September 1792. Pour apprendre ou simplement se remémorer les grandes étapes, nous vous récapitulons le déroulement et les principales dates de cette révolution historique. Both territories experienced revolutions in 1789. On en retient donc le chiffre 1. La Révolution française est un point majeur dans l’histoire de France. [79], The massacre badly damaged Lafayette's reputation; the authorities responded by closing radical clubs and newspapers, while their leaders went into exile or hiding, including Marat. The upshot was a revolt in 1798, led by Wolfe Tone, that was crushed by Britain. [110], At Cholet on 17 October, the Republican army won a decisive victory over the Vendée rebels, with the remnants escaping into Brittany. [99] Horrified conservatives across Europe called for the destruction of revolutionary France; in February the Convention anticipated this by declaring war on Britain and the Dutch Republic; these countries were later joined by Spain, Portugal, Naples and the Tuscany in the War of the First Coalition. February 23: Bonaparte recommends to the Directory the abandonment of the invasion of England, and an invasion of Egypt instead. June 26: Avignon, then under the rule of the, June 26: Diplomats of England, Austria, Prussia and the United Provinces meet at, July 12: The Assembly adopts the final text on the status of the French clergy. September 29: Directory instructs Bonaparte to win major concessions in negotiations with Austria, and, in the event of refusal, to march on, October 17: Signature of peace between Austria and France in the, December 21: Bonaparte meets with the Irish leader. After a few minutes, Tallien interrupted him and began the attack. There is no evidence of a negative effect of French invasion. Opening of the, June 13: Leaders of departments opposing the new government meet in. [192], The French Revolution had a major impact on Europe and the New World, decisively changing the course of human history. [214], A 2017 National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that the emigration of more than 100,000 individuals (predominantly supporters of the Old Regime) during the Revolution had a significant negative impact on income per capita in the 19th century (due to the fragmentation of agricultural holdings) but became positive in the second half of the 20th century onward (because it facilitated the rise in human capital investments). These victories led to the collapse of the anti-French coalition; Prussia made peace in April 1795, followed soon after by Spain, leaving Britain and Austria as the only major powers still in the war. The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. May 4: At the demand of the Paris section of Saint-Antoine, the Convention fixes a maximum price for grain. [126] This was accompanied by military success; in January 1795, French forces helped the Dutch Patriots set up the Batavian Republic, securing their northern border. Elle reste une période de référence pour de nombreux citoyens. Both are quickly suppressed by the army. April 15: A report to the Convention by Saint-Just calls from greater centralization of the police under the control of the Committee for Public Safety. This is generally viewed as marking the end of the Revolutionary period. December 24: The Assembly decrees that Protestants are eligible to hold public office; Jews are still excluded. January 17: In a vote lasting twenty-one hours, 361 deputies vote for the death penalty, and 360 against (including 26 for a death penalty followed by a pardon). Cockades with various colour schemes were used during the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. They raged into the 20th century. December 8: Seventy-three surviving Girondin deputies are given seats again in the Convention. Napoleon as emperor set up a constitutional system (although he remained in full control), and the restored Bourbons were forced to go along with one. He is denounced by, July 11: As the Austrian army advances slowly toward Paris, the Assembly declares that the Nation is in danger (. Blue and red are the traditional colours of Paris, and they are used on the city's coat of arms. There were practically no exclusions from the voting; and the electors drew up cahiers de doléances, which listed their grievances and hopes. [56], Discussions continued; Mounier, supported by conservatives like Lally-Tollendal, wanted a bicameral system, with an upper house appointed by the king, who would have the right of veto. Robespierre et le Comité de salut public décident de faire exécuter Danton, Camille Desmoulins et leurs partisans car ils sont consid… He was taken to the Hôtel de Ville and executed, his head placed on a pike and paraded about the city; the fortress was then torn down in remarkably quick time. The latter derived rank from judicial or administrative posts and tended to be hard-working professionals, who dominated the regional Parlements and were often intensely socially conservative. [207] Battles over the role of religion in the public sphere, and closely related issues such as church-controlled schools, that were opened by the Revolution have never seen closure. Belgian men were drafted into the French wars and heavily taxed. April 27: Massacre of anti-French insurgents in, May 12: Revolutionaries overthrow the government council (, May 16: Bonaparte begins negotiations with the. Opponents are arrested and imprisoned. Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen. December 16: Conviction and execution of the Jacobin. [179], Madame Roland (a.k.a. June 4: Robespierre is unanimously elected president of the Convention. April 4: The Convention decrees that anyone who insults the justice system is excluded from speaking, barring Danton from defending himself. [163], To illustrate the differences between the new Republic and the old regime, the leaders needed to implement a new set of symbols to be celebrated instead of the old religious and monarchical symbolism. [144], It has been suggested the Directory did not collapse for economic or military reasons, but because by 1799, many 'preferred the uncertainties of authoritarian rule to the continuing ambiguities of parliamentary politics'. April 18: The National Guard, despite orders from Lafayette, blocks the royal family from going to the, May 30: The Assembly orders the transfers of the ashes of. July 17: The army of Hoche arrives within three, July 20: Barras produces evidence that General Pichegru was in secret correspondence with, July 25: The Councils vote a law forbidding political clubs, including the republican. Pour preuve, elle suscite encore de nombreux débats. [167], Its operation became a popular entertainment that attracted great crowds of spectators. The later Bolsheviks admired the French Revolution and especially the Jacobins, the extremist French revolutionaries who had instigated the Reign of Terror. The following is a timeline of the French Revolution. February 22: In a speech at the Cordeliers Club. June 12: Deputies who supported the May 20–22 uprising are put on trial. June 12: Without naming names, Robespierre announces to the Convention that he will demand the heads of "intriguers" who are plotting against the Convention. May 7: A report to the Council of Five Hundred declares that the French elections were irregular, and recommends exclusion of candidates of the far left. The increasingly numerous and prosperous elite of wealthy commoners—merchants, manufacturers, and professionals, often called the bourgeoisie—aspired to political power in those countries where it did not already possess it. January 26: Proclamation of a new republic in Naples, named, February 3: Conflict between Generals Championnet and. [232], German reaction to the Revolution swung from favourable to antagonistic. [181], A major aspect of the French Revolution was the dechristianisation movement, a movement strongly rejected by many devout people. The clergy and nobles are welcomed with formal ceremonies and processions, the Third Estate is not. "Gender and the Shifting Ground of Revolutionary Politics: The Case of Madame Roland. May 20: The clergy renounces its special tax privileges, and accepts the principle of fiscal equality. However, unlike the United States, there was no consensus on the role of the Crown, and until this had been agreed, it was impossible to create political institutions. However, normal legal processes were suspended following the assassination of Marat on 13 July by the Girondist Charlotte Corday, which the Committee of Public Safety used as an excuse to take control. [66], The August decrees abolished tithes, and on 2 November the Assembly confiscated all church property, the value of which was used to back a new paper currency known as assignats. July 28: The Brunswick Manifesto is widely circulated in Paris, causing fury against the King. C'est un moment fondamental de l’histoire de France, marquant la fin de l'Ancien Régime et le passage à une monarchie constitutionnelle puis à la Première République qu'ait connue le pays. December 10: The legislature votes a forced loan of six hundred million francs to be taken from the wealthiest French citizens. "[199], After the first year of revolution, the power of the king had been stripped away, he was left a mere figurehead, the nobility had lost all their titles and most of their land, the Church lost its monasteries and farmlands, bishops, judges and magistrates were elected by the people, and the army was almost helpless, with military power in the hands of the new revolutionary National Guard. The election results were cancelled, sixty-three leading Royalists deported to French Guiana and new laws passed against emigres, Royalists and ultra-Jacobins. August 23: Bonaparte has had no news from France in six months. January 18: Marat publishes a fierce attack on finance minister Necker. [228], Conversely, two seminal political pieces of political history were written in Price's favor, supporting the general right of the French people to replace their State. [28] In May 1787, Brienne replaced Calonne as Finance Minister; Necker was re-appointed in August 1788 and Louis summoned the Estates-General to assemble in May 1789. December 28: The Assembly votes to summon a mass army of volunteers to defend the borders of France. Histoire de la Révolution française (in French). They suggest that "areas that were occupied by the French and that underwent radical institutional reform experienced more rapid urbanization and economic growth, especially after 1850. [203][204], During the Terror, extreme efforts of dechristianisation ensued, including the imprisonment and massacre of priests and destruction of churches and religious images throughout France. The largely aristocratic officer corps found it increasingly difficult to maintain discipline, and in several cases were attacked by their own soldiers. December 31: Armistice on the Rhine halting combat between the French and Austrian armies. July 16: Conflict within the Directory between Barthélemy and Carnot, favorable to the monarchists, and the three pro-republican directors, Barras, La Révellière-Lépeaux, and Rewbell. February 20: Bonaparte marches his army from Cairo toward, February 20: Bonaparte defeats a Turkish army and occupies. [225]" Yet in Britain the majority, especially among the aristocracy, strongly opposed the French Revolution. The Convention sends Robespierre's speech to the Committees for further study, without action. June 5: Bonaparte signs an armistice with the king of Sicily. October 9: Lyon is recaptured by the army of the Convention. [33], To assist delegates, Cahiers de doléances, or lists of grievances, were compiled. Counter-revolutionary women resisted what they saw as the intrusion of the state into their lives. In return, it provided a minimal level of social support. It proceeded in a back-and-forth process between revolutionary and reactionary forces. October 5: Marat's newspaper demands a march on Versailles to protest the insult to the. August 23: The Assembly proclaims freedom of religious opinions. ", Tim McHugh, "Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit,", Jacques Léonard, "Femmes, Religion et Médecine: Les Religieuses qui Soignent, en France au XIXe Siècle,". The philosophes—intellectuals whose writings inspired these arguments—were certainly influenced by 17th-century theorists such as René Descartes, Benedict de Spinoza and John Locke, but they came to very different conclusions about political, social, and economic matters. May 7: Robespierre asks the Convention to decree "that the French people recognize the existence of a Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul", and to organize celebrations of the new cult.

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