13, 11–25. doi: 10.1590/S1415-47572012000600020, Brady, C. L., Cleenwerck, I., van der Westhuizen, L., Venter, S. N., Coutinho, T. A., and De Vos, P. (2012). How the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum promotes plant growth - a critical assessment. Fluorescent strains of Pantoea sp. Cultures were then inoculated into sterile, molten Fahraeus medium (per 1 l, 100 mg CaCl2⋅H2O, 120 mg MgSO4⋅7H2O, 100 mg KH2PO4, 150 mg Na2HPO4, 5 mg Ferric citrate, and a trace amount of Na2MoO4⋅2H2O, then adjusted to pH 7.5 and added 4 g agar) that was cooled, but not solidified, and then the medium was poured into sterile glass test tubes or magenta boxes and allowed to solidify. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis. Métier. 59, 307–321. Microbiol. 48, 251–275. Colonization of plant roots by Pantoea sp. A., Cassan, F. D., et al. Work at the University of Notre Dame was supported by DOE grant SC0006642 (RM) and by a subcontract from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (SP). Many soil-dwelling and plant-associated bacteria, including Pantoea spp., produce carotenoids, which are pigment molecules found in the cellular membrane (Dussault et al., 2008; Mohammadi et al., 2012). doi: 10.1007/BF00010355, Sandmann, G., and Misawa, N. (1992). FIGURE 4. YR343 on plant roots, we constructed a fluorescent strain (YR343-pGFP) in which GFP was expressed from a Gateway-modified pBBR1 plasmid (Pelletier et al., 2008). Int. YR343 (left) and ΔcrtB (right) and grown for 48 h showing loss of pigmentation in the mutant strain. 55, 373–399. 64, 3740–3747. Rev. Frédéric Rouvière - Duration: 1:00:56. In all images, Pantoea sp. (A) Comparison of biofilm formation between wild type Pantoea sp. JM-F and AB wrote the paper. Evaluation of plant growth promoting and colonization ability of endophytic diazotrophs from deep water rice. Plant Microbe Interact. Reactive oxygen species during plant-microorganism early interactions. Cell viability was measured using the Bac-Titer Glo assay and plotted as a percentage relative to the untreated control, measured as 100%. BAC PRO EDPI (Études et Définition de Produits Industriels) La capacité d'accueil en 2nde Pro EDPI au Lycée Rouvière est de 12 élèves. Microbial carotenoids. Plant Microbe Interact. YR343 biofilm as detected by Calcofluor White staining (blue). (2012). YR343 grown in R2A medium (left). FIGURE 1. Mol. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Plant Microbe Interact. Plant Microbe Interact. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. 42, 207–220. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. Pantoea sp. (2002). YR343 encodes a single, conserved ipdC gene which encodes indole pyruvate decarboxylase, suggesting that this strain synthesizes IAA using the indole pyruvate pathway (Patten and Glick, 1996). Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. The enzymatic inactivation of indoleacetic acid; some characteristics of the enzyme contained in pea seedlings. and some related Klebsiella spp. (2008). On rare occasions, we have also observed Pantoea sp. Brown, S. D., Utturkar, S. M., Klingeman, D. M., Johnson, C. M., Martin, S. L., Land, M. L., et al. |, http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Annu. 57, 785–792. Environ. The distribution of cells is indicated by staining with Syto61 (red). Microscopic observation showed that Pantoea sp. Lipids 29, 149–150. J. In addition to their protective role, however, carotenoids have been implicated in modulation of membrane fluidity and may play a role in the formation of membrane domains (Huang and Haug, 1974; Chamberlain et al., 1991; Gruszecki, 1999; Gruszecki and Strzalka, 2005; Landrum, 2009; Lopez and Kolter, 2010). Chamberlain, N. R., Mehrtens, B. G., Xiong, Z., Kapral, F. A., Boardman, J. L., and Rearick, J. I. Photothèque. Absorbance was measured at 550 nm using a BioTekSynergy 2 microplate reader. Root colonization by Pantoea sp. Biological Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Potential of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy in natural carotenoid analysis. “Carotenoid biosynthesis — an overview,” in Carotenoids, eds N. Krinsky, M. Mathews-Roth and R. Taylor (New York, NY: Springer), 167–184. Plant Biol. Plant Microbe Interact. Afterward, each well was treated with 100 μl of Bac-Titer Glo reagent (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and luminescence was measured on a BioTek Synergy 2 microplate reader. Pantoea stewartii subsp. 39, 1452–1463. Zogaj, X., Nimtz, M., Rohde, M., Bokranz, W., and Romling, U. Likewise, ΔcrtB mutant cells were also impaired in pellicle formation (Figure 6B). nov., Pantoea brenneri sp. Pantoea sp. Pantoea vagans sp. 192, 2936–2937. Each plant was inoculated with approximately 1 × 108 cells per plant and grown for 1 week prior to harvesting. Different species within the Pantoea genera have been shown to be either beneficial or harmful in association with plants (Walterson and Stavrinides, 2015). Biophys. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. AB, SF, DP, and JM-F performed phenotypic characterization and mutant analyses; CS and TC performed phylogenetic analyses, NE and TT performed GC-MS analyses, RM, SP, and PB performed Raman spectroscopy analyses, and AB, SJ, and DW conducted pathogenicity analyses. 41, 642–650. doi: 10.1104/pp.106.079467, Tram, G., Korolik, V., and Day, C. J. Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Consistent with this data, we observed YR343-pGFP cells attached to P. deltoides roots using confocal microscopy, whereas no bacteria were detected in the un-inoculated control plants (Figure 3C). Green represents the wild type population, while red represents the ΔcrtB mutant population. 86, 106–111. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-21-10-1359, Hirayama, O., Nakamura, K., Hamada, S., and Kobayasi, Y. (2012). 3, 200–204. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes. Rev. (2006). Regulation of membrane lipid fluidity in Acholeplasma laidlawii: effect of carotenoid pigment content. Microbiol. YR343. This was unexpected since there was no obvious connection (e.g., common enzymes or substrates) between the pathways involved in carotenoid production and the pathways involved in IAA production. Afterward, germinated seedlings were added to each tube. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship, we have not observed any pathogenicity associated with Pantoea sp. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism, photosynthesis, and fitness. Mol. We chose to further characterize this carotenoid using Raman spectroscopy. Immun. “Influence of growth promoting bacteria from Uzbekistan and Germany on the growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and wheat on different soils,” in Plant Nutrition: Food Security and Sustainability of Agro-Ecosystems Through Basic and Applied Research Developments in plant and soil sciences, eds W. Horst, M. K. Schenk, A. Bürkert, N. Claassen, H. Flessa, W. B. Frommer, et al. Initial BLAST (16S and gyrB) and Ribosomal Database Project 16S sequence comparisons suggested a strong affiliation of strainYR343 with Pantoea spp. Another possibility is that the loss of carotenoids affects membrane organization and impacts the signaling pathways involved in plant recognition. A representative Raman spectrum of wild type Pantoea sp. A general system for studying protein-protein interactions in Gram-negative bacteria. MBio 6:e01251. Among the organisms isolated from the Populus rhizosphere was the γ-proteobacterium Pantoea sp. *Correspondence: Jennifer L. Morrell-Falvey, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. Sequences from Populus rhizosphere isolates GM01, YR343 (Brown et al., 2012) and three other unidentified isolates for which data was available from genome sequencing efforts on IMG were aligned using the Translation alignment tool within GeneiousTM (v6.0.4-www.geneious.com) with 94 total representatives of Pantoea and related taxa of Erwinia, Tatumella and other Enterobacteriaceae for further phylogenetic analysis with Chronobacter sakazakii as an outgroup. Mol. Using microscopy and engineered strains of Pantoea sp. Rice endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 promotes host plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates. Three plants were tested for each of four conditions, including uninoculated control, wild type only, ΔcrtB only, and a 1:1 mix of wild type and ΔcrtB. YR343, indicating that this species is capable of phosphate solubilization (Figure 2B). YR343 on plant root surfaces. (2010). doi: 10.1094/mpmi.2002.15.11.1173, del Amor, F. M., and Cuadra-Crespo, P. (2011). Microbiol. For soil samples, 1 g of soil was mixed with 4 ml of PBS, then vortexed and plated similarly. Zeaxanthin (both mono- and diglucoside forms) was found to be the predominant carotenoid present in Erwinia herbicola and P. stewartii (Hundle et al., 1991; Mohammadi et al., 2012). Mol. Bashan, Y. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01251-1215, Kulkarni, G. B., Nayak, A. S., Sajjan, S. S., Oblesha, A., and Karegoudar, T. B. Based on phylogeny, Pantoea sp. (1997). Pantoea sp. Correlation of carotenoid production, decreased membrane fluidity, and resistance to oleic acid killing in Staphylococcus aureus 18Z. YR343 was grown on LB supplemented with 0.4% glycerol (Figure 2E). (2008). When grown on medium containing an insoluble form of calcium phosphate, a zone of clearing formed around colonies of Pantoea sp. Briefly, 2 ml of cells grown in LB medium were rinsed in water, resuspended in 1 ml of 100% methanol, and heated at 85°C for 20 min. Front. doi: 10.1007/BF02537155, Huang, L., and Haug, A. Microbiol. A general time reversible model was used with each rate category and allowed to vary according to a gamma distribution. How carotenoids function in photosynthetic bacteria. (2007). (1990). Acta 895, 63–79. (Top) untreated P. deltoides WV94 plant; (bottom) P. deltoides WV94 cultured with YR343-pGFP for 7 days. All authors contributed intellectual input and data analyses and assisted in manuscript preparation. Egamberdiyeva, D., and Höflich, G. (2001). Plant Dis. Rev. (2010). The strong Raman signal in wild type Pantoea sp. The multicellular morphotypes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli produce cellulose as the second component of the extracellular matrix. Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. (F) Raman spectroscopy of wild type Pantoea sp. 28, 449–461. doi: 10.1007/s00203-010-0609–601. Syst. Mol. doi: 10.1099/Ijs.0.032615–32610, Brady, C., Cleenwerck, I., Venter, S., Vancanneyt, M., Swings, J., and Coutinho, T. (2008). Microbiol. Finally, the loss of carotenoids may affect the ability of Pantoea sp. (1991). doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.1991.tb01989.x, Kamilova, F., Kravchenko, L. V., Shaposhnikov, A. I., Azarova, T., Makarova, N., and Lugtenberg, B. Carotenes and carotenoids in natural biological samples: a Raman spectroscopic analysis. Adv. The wild type strain shows a spectra dominated by peaks (highlighted by arrows) corresponding to zeaxanthin. Surprisingly, we observed a decrease in IAA production by the ΔcrtB mutant. Data analysis was performed using commercial graphic software Igor Pro 6.32A (Lake Oswego, OR, USA). Interestingly, IAA is produced in some pathogenic species of Pantoea that induce tumor or gall formation via the tryptamine pathway (Manulis et al., 1998). Plant Biol. The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Biophys. (2009). Resonance Raman studies of bacterial reaction centers. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the Pantoea isolate with known species within the Enterobacteriaceae. Microbiol. (B) Phosphate solubilization by Pantoea sp. Plant Microbe Interact. J. Biotechnol. Syst. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2008.02410.x, Edge, R., McGarvey, D. J., and Truscott, T. G. (1997). YR343 was isolated from the rhizosphere of a native Populus deltoides tree growing in the Yadkin River region of North Carolina (Shakya et al., 2013) and a draft genome sequence was obtained (Brown et al., 2012). doi: 10.1128/Jb.00060–10, de Oliveira, V. E., Castro, H. V., Edwards, H. G. M., and de Oliveira, L. F. C. (2010). Molecular typing has revolutionized epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, including those of a mycobacterial etiology. Découvrez les modalités d’inscription, le contenu des cours, les matières enseignées et les débouchés stewartii exhibits surface motility, which is a critical aspect of Stewart’s wilt disease development on maize. Mol. Wild type Pantoea sp. Denitrification within the genus Azospirillum and other associative bacteria. Rooted cuttings were planted in sterile clay soil inoculated with Pantoea sp. doi: 10.1093/femsre/fuv027, Wang, Y., Ohara, Y., Nakayashiki, H., Tosa, Y., and Mayama, S. (2005). A new award has been added [I to the list of honors presented! Indeed, we observed a nearly threefold decrease in indole production from 4.35 ± 0.20 μg/ml indoles in wild type cells compared to 1.52 ± 0.02 μg/ml indoles in ΔcrtB. Conversely, little to no pigment was extracted from the ΔcrtB mutant (Figure 4C). Annu. Phylogenetic tree of Pantoea sp. Organic acids, sugars, and L-tryptophane in exudates of vegetables growing on stonewool and their effects on activities of rhizosphere bacteria.
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